Showing posts with label Brother of Jesus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Brother of Jesus. Show all posts

Monday, May 4, 2020

Teaching Notes Book of JUDE (Judah)



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Teaching Notes Book of JUDE (Judah)

Hugh Wood, Atlanta, Georgia





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The first Quarantine in the USA since 1918 continues.  It is Day 52.

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"The grass withers and the flower [fades], but the word of [the Lord] endures forever."  Isaiah 40:8; 1 Peter 1:24-25.







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JUDE

Imminent Apostasy

The Faith Once For All Delivered to the Saints


Jude (Half Brother of Jesus)


Church there were two


In the New Testament


Judes: Judas, one


Apostles, Luke 6:16, see page 371: and Judas, the of the Twelve

13:55. The latter is commonly brother of Jesus, Matt regarded as
the writer of this Epistle.

Eusebius relates that Domitian, in his Persecution of Chris-

D, looking up the heirs of the Kingdom of David,
tians, 96 A of Jude the Brother of Jesus
ordered the arrest of the Grandsons that they were farmers,
They told the Emperor and lived by the that Christ’s Kingdom
was Not a Kingdom of This World, but when He Comes in

toil of their hands, and would be manifested

World to Judge the Living and Dead.

Glory at the End of the Place and Date
The similarity oi the situation to that mentioned in II Peter
suggests the possibility that this Epistle may have been addressed
to the same Churches, which, it seems from 11 Pet 3:1, were the
same as those to whom I Peter was addressed, which "were in
Asia Minor, I Peter 1:1. Probably about 67 AD.

Occasion of Writing

Evidently Jude had been planning to write a more general

statement about the Gospel to this group of Churches, When news
of the sudden appearance of a Devastating Heresy prompted him
to dispatch this stern warning, 3,4.

The False Teachers, 4-19

Jude minces no words as to their nature. The frightful epithets

which he uses refer to certain Leaders Within the Church. Un-
godly Men,. Turn the Grace of God into Lasciviousness, 4.
Deny Christ, 4. Like Sodom, given to Fornication 7. In their
Dreamings Defile the Flesh, 8. As Brute Beasts Corrupt Them-
selves, 10. Spots in your Lovefeasts, 12. Shepherds that Feed
Themselves, 12. Clouds without Water, 12. Trees Without Fruit,
12. Raging Waves of the Sea Foaming out their own Shame, 13.
Wandering Stars for whom the Blackness of Darkness has been
Reserved Forever, 13. Murmurers, 16. Complainers, 16. Speaking
Great Swelling Words, 16. Mockers Walking after their Own
Ungodly Lusts, 18. Sensual, 19. Not Having the Spirit, 19. Show
Respect of Persons for the sake of their Own Advantage, 16.
And Make Separations, 19.

These false teachers had already crept in, 4, yet were spoken of

as appearing in “the last time”. While primarily referring to some
particular class of men that belonged to Jude's day, it may pos
sibly be a general characterization of the whole body of false
teachers who, through the centuries, would, from within, cor
rupt the Church, and thus thwart the redemptive work of Christ.
Those who are acquainted with Church History know well how
the Church has suffered from such men.

The Fallen Angels, 6

Here and in II Peter 2:4 are the only Scripture references to the

Fall of the Angels (Rev 12:9 seems to refer to their later defeat).
Some think this is an allusion to Gen. 6:1-5, where the “sons of
God" intermarried with the “daughters of men". More probably it
refers to an earlier event when Satan led certain of the
angels in rebellion against God.

Michael's Contention with The Devil, 9

Michael is mentioned in Dan 10:13,21 as a "chief prince", and

in Rev. 12:7 as leader of angels, but only in this passage is he
called "the archangel". Moses’ burial is told in Dt 34:5-7. But
Michael’s dispute with Satan about Moses’ body is not there
mentioned. Origen says that Jude’s statement is a reference to a
passage in the apocryphal book, “The. Assumption of Moses"
which was written about the time of the birth of Christ, only a
part of which book is now extant, and which extant part has no
such passage. Jude may have had knowledge of the incident from
other sources. Josephus says God hid Moses' body lest it be made
an idol. Possibly Satan wanted it to tempt Israel into idolatry.
Jude’s use of the incident seems to sanction its historicity. It
served as an example against the sin oi ушные": even the
Archangel, highest of creatures, did not rail at the Devil, the most
degraded of creatures.

The Prophecy of Enoch, 14,15

This is the only Scripture allusion to the prophecy of Enoch.

The brief story of his life is told in Gen 5:18-24, but there is no
mention of any of his words. Jude’s quotation is from the apocry
phal Book of Enoch, which was written about 100 B C. He evi-
dently regards it as a genuine word of Enoch.  Thus while Adam,
founder of the race, was yet alive, Enoch (contemporary with
Adam for 300 yrs) prophesied of the eventual Coming of the
Lord, with his angels, to execute judgment upon the disobedient
race. Jude’s Sanction of one passage in the book does not
Sanction the whole book.

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The Bible Project 
Book of Jude (Judah)

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Jude

New International Version


1 Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and a brother of James,

To those who have been called, who are loved in God the Father and kept for[a] Jesus Christ:

2 Mercy, peace and love be yours in abundance.

The Sin and Doom of Ungodly People

3 Dear friends, although I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share, I felt compelled to write and urge you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to God’s holy people. 4 For certain individuals whose condemnation was written about[b] long ago have secretly slipped in among you. They are ungodly people, who pervert the grace of our God into a license for immorality and deny Jesus Christ our only Sovereign and Lord.


5 Though you already know all this, I want to remind you that the Lord[c] at one time delivered his people out of Egypt, but later destroyed those who did not believe. 6 And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling—these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day. 7 In a similar way, Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding towns gave themselves up to sexual immorality and perversion. They serve as an example of those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire.


8 In the very same way, on the strength of their dreams these ungodly people pollute their own bodies, reject authority and heap abuse on celestial beings. 9 But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not himself dare to condemn him for slander but said, “The Lord rebuke you!”[d] 10 Yet these people slander whatever they do not understand, and the very things they do understand by instinct—as irrational animals do—will destroy them.


11 Woe to them! They have taken the way of Cain; they have rushed for profit into Balaam’s error; they have been destroyed in Korah’s rebellion.

12 These people are blemishes at your love feasts, eating with you without the slightest qualm—shepherds who feed only themselves. They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind; autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted—twice dead. 13 They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever.


14 Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about them: “See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones 15 to judge everyone, and to convict all of them of all the ungodly acts they have committed in their ungodliness, and of all the defiant words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”[e] 16 These people are grumblers and faultfinders; they follow their own evil desires; they boast about themselves and flatter others for their own advantage.


A Call to Persevere


17 But, dear friends, remember what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold. 18 They said to you, “In the last times there will be scoffers who will follow their own ungodly desires.” 19 These are the people who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts and do not have the Spirit.

20 But you, dear friends, by building yourselves up in your most holy faith and praying in the Holy Spirit, 21 keep yourselves in God’s love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life.

22 Be merciful to those who doubt; 23 save others by snatching them from the fire; to others show mercy, mixed with fear—hating even the clothing stained by corrupted flesh.[f]


Doxology


24 To him who is able to keep you from stumbling and to present you before his glorious presence without fault and with great joy— 25 to the only God our Savior be glory, majesty, power and authority, through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages, now and forevermore! Amen.


Footnotes
Jude 1:1 Or by; or in
Jude 1:4 Or individuals who were marked out for condemnation
Jude 1:5 Some early manuscripts Jesus
Jude 1:9 Jude is alluding to the Jewish Testament of Moses (approximately the first century a.d.).
Jude 1:15 From the Jewish First Book of Enoch (approximately the first century b.c.)
Jude 1:23 The Greek manuscripts of these verses vary at several points

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NIV Book of Jude Audio




Korah’s Rebellon




Full Book of Enoch





Alternate List of Book of Enoch (CH 1)



Church History by Eusebius

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Jude is Papyri:  72, 74 and 78.  Hopefully, to be added.



Jude
72, 78
74

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New International Version (NIV)

Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Some content adapted from Halley, Henry H., Bible Handbook, Grayson Publishing, Minneapolis, MN.  © 1927 - 1959, 1964

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Hugh C. Wood, Atlanta, Georgia

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END




Saturday, April 18, 2020

Teaching Notes Book of James (Jacob) Chapters 4 to 5

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Teaching Notes Book of James (Jacob) Chapters 4 to 5


Hugh Wood, Atlanta, Georgia





















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The first Quarantine in the USA since 1918 continues.  It is Day 36.   


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"The grass withers and the flower [fades], but the word of [the Lord] endures forever."  Isaiah 40:8; 1 Peter 1:24-25.





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Book of James.  Papyrus 100.  





Book of James Papyrus 100


Papyrus 100

Papyrus 100 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), P 100, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Epistle of James. The surviving texts of James are verses 3:13-4:4; 4:9-5:1, they are in a fragmentary condition. The manuscript has been assigned paleographically to the late 3rd century, or early 4th century.   See, wiki

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Chapter 4. Worldly Mindedness

Origin of Wars: Covetousness, 1, 2. The desire to get that which
 belongs to others. This has been the cause of most wars.

Reason for Unanswered Prayer: ‘because they are for the
gratification of our worldly pleasures, 3.

Double-Mindedness, 4-10. “An expansion of Jesus’ statement
 that a person cannot serve God and Mammon, Matt 6:24, and
similar to John’s warning against Love of the World, I John
 2:15-17. Such passages suggest the need of unceasing
Self-Examination; for, having to live in the world, and worldly
things being needful to our daily subsistence, it requires great
watchfulness to keep our affection above the border line. We
need constantly to draw close to God. to Cleanse our Hands,
to Purify our Heart, and to Humble ourselves.

The Tongue, again, 11,12. This time on the utter absurdity of
one sinner setting himself up as judge of another sinner.

If the Lord Will, 13-17. One of the most amazing doctrines of
Scripture is that God, with the infinite universe on His hands,
yet has a definite Plan for each of His people, Acts 18:21; Rom
1:10; 15:32; I Cor 4:19; I Pet 3:17.

Chapter 5. Riches. Patience. Tongue. Prayer

The Rich, 1-6. James’s fourth and strongest blast at them, the
others being 1:9-11; 2:1-13; 4:1-10. There must have been a good
many rich men in the Judean Church who were thoroughly Un
Christian bent on Worldly Pleasure. Rare Christian souls are to
be found among the rich;- but, quite largely, James’ picture of
still holds; and his warning to them of coming retribution
is frightful.

Patience under Suffering, 7-11. One day the Lord will Come,
and all Suffering will be over. Keep your eyes and your heart
fixed on That Glad Day. The greater the Suffering here the
greater will be the Glory there.

The Tongue, again, 12. Our Sinful Tongue. The cause of so
much trouble. This time, Swearing. A very serious Sin, very
displeasing to God. Yet how many professed Christians, in their
ordinary conversation, profane God's Name. A better use of the
Tongue is to Sing, 13.

Prayer, again, 13-18. Believing Prayer will surely be answered
Elijah’s closing and opening of the heavens was a rare and
mighty miracle, I Kin 18. Yet it is quoted to us as an incentive
to Pray.

Anointing With Oil, 14, Was a recognized medical treatment, Isa
1: 6; Lk 10:34, to be reinforced by Prayer, not to be used for
 magical purposes.

To Win a Soul for Christ, 19,20, pleases God immensely, for
which He loves us, and overlooks our weaknesses. 'For it, we shall

shine as the stars forever, Dan 12:3.

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Bible Project

Book of James (Jacob)

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James 4 New International Version (NIV)

Submit Yourselves to God

4 What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you? 2 You desire but do not have, so you kill. You covet but you cannot get what you want, so you quarrel and fight. You do not have because you do not ask God. 3 When you ask, you do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, that you may spend what you get on your pleasures.

4 You adulterous people,[a] don’t you know that friendship with the world means enmity against God? Therefore, anyone who chooses to be a friend of the world becomes an enemy of God. 5 Or do you think Scripture says without reason that he jealously longs for the spirit he has caused to dwell in us[b]? 6 But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:

“God opposes the proud
    but shows favor to the humble.”[c]

7 Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 8 Come near to God and he will come near to you. Wash your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 9 Grieve, mourn and wail. Change your laughter to mourning and your joy to gloom. 10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up.

11 Brothers and sisters, do not slander one another. Anyone who speaks against a brother or sister[d] or judges them speaks against the law and judges it. When you judge the law, you are not keeping it, but sitting in judgment on it. 12 There is only one Lawgiver and Judge, the one who is able to save and destroy. But you—who are you to judge your neighbor?

Boasting About Tomorrow





13 Now listen, you who say, “Today or tomorrow we will go to this or that city, spend a year there, carry on business and make money.” 14 Why, you do not even know what will happen tomorrow. What is your life? You are a mist that appears for a little while and then vanishes. 15 Instead, you ought to say, “If it is the Lord’s will, we will live and do this or that.” 16 As it is, you boast in your arrogant schemes. All such boasting is evil. 17 If anyone, then, knows the good they ought to do and doesn’t do it, it is sin for them.

Footnotes:
James 4:4 An allusion to covenant unfaithfulness; see Hosea 3:1.
James 4:5 Or that the spirit he caused to dwell in us envies intensely; or that the Spirit he caused to dwell in us longs jealously
James 4:6 Prov. 3:34
James 4:11 The Greek word for brother or sister (adelphos) refers here to a believer, whether man or woman, as part of God’s family.


James 5 New International Version (NIV)

Warning to Rich Oppressors

5 Now listen, you rich people, weep and wail because of the misery that is coming on you. 2 Your wealth has rotted, and moths have eaten your clothes. 3 Your gold and silver are corroded. Their corrosion will testify against you and eat your flesh like fire. You have hoarded wealth in the last days. 4 Look! The wages you failed to pay the workers who mowed your fields are crying out against you. The cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord Almighty. 5 You have lived on earth in luxury and self-indulgence. You have fattened yourselves in the day of slaughter.[a] 6 You have condemned and murdered the innocent one, who was not opposing you.

Patience in Suffering
7 Be patient, then, brothers and sisters, until the Lord’s coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop, patiently waiting for the autumn and spring rains. 8 You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. 9 Don’t grumble against one another, brothers and sisters, or you will be judged. The Judge is standing at the door!

10 Brothers and sisters, as an example of patience in the face of suffering, take the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. 11 As you know, we count as blessed those who have persevered. You have heard of Job’s perseverance and have seen what the Lord finally brought about. The Lord is full of compassion and mercy.

12 Above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. All you need to say is a simple “Yes” or “No.” Otherwise you will be condemned.

The Prayer of Faith

13 Is anyone among you in trouble? Let them pray. Is anyone happy? Let them sing songs of praise. 14 Is anyone among you sick? Let them call the elders of the church to pray over them and anoint them with oil in the name of the Lord. 15 And the prayer offered in faith will make the sick person well; the Lord will raise them up. If they have sinned, they will be forgiven. 16 Therefore confess your sins to each other and pray for each other so that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective.

17 Elijah was a human being, even as we are. He prayed earnestly that it would not rain, and it did not rain on the land for three and a half years. 18 Again he prayed, and the heavens gave rain, and the earth produced its crops.

19 My brothers and sisters, if one of you should wander from the truth and someone should bring that person back, 20 remember this: Whoever turns a sinner from the error of their way will save them from death and cover over a multitude of sins.

Footnotes:

James 5:5 Or yourselves as in a day of feasting

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New International Version (NIV)

Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Some content adapted from Halley, Henry H., Bible Handbook, Grayson Publishing, Minneapolis, MN.  © 1927 - 1959, 1964

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Hugh C. Wood, Atlanta, Georgia

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END

Friday, April 17, 2020

Teaching Notes Book of James (Jacob) Chapters 1 to 3

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Teaching Notes Book of James (Jacob) Chapters 1 to 3

Hugh Wood, Atlanta, Georgia
















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The first Quarantine in the USA since 1918 continues.  It is Day 36.   

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"The grass withers and the flower [fades], but the word of [the Lord] endures forever.”  Isaiah 40:8."

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Book of James.  Papyrus 20.  Princeton, University





Papyrus 20



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JAMES

Chapter 2:1-13. Respect of Persons

There must have been a decidedly worldly element in the
Judean Church, to call forth such words as these. So different
from the way the Church had started, Acts 2:45; 4:34.

Christ taught that the Glory of His Church would be in its
Kindness to the Poor. But very evidently some of the congrega-
tions were developing into social circles where the Poor were
given to understand they were not wanted. But God loves the
Poor. And the Rich ought to love them too.

Chapter 2:14-26. Faith and Works

Paul’s doctrine of Justification by Faith, and James’ doctrine of
Justification by  Works,  are  supplementary,  not  contradictory.
Neither was opposing the teaching of the other. They were de-
voted friends ‚and co-workers. James fully endorsed Paul’s work,
Acts 15:13-29; 21:17-26.

Paul preached Faith as the basis of justification before God,
but insisted that it must issue in the right kind of Life. James
was writing to those who had accepted the doctrine of Justifica-
tion by Faith but were not Living Right, telling them that such
Faith was No Faith at all.

Chapter 3:1—12. The Tongue

Sins of the Tongue: not only Harsh and Angry Words, but
False  and  Foolish  Doctrines. From the  general  tone  of  this
chapter we suspect there must have been many presumptuous;
quarrelsome, worldly-minded men, of uncontrolled temper, put-
ting themselves forward as leaders and teachers.

Power of the Tongue. The Tongue is the main expression of
Our Personality, and usually calls forth an immediate reaction,
of one kind or another, in others. Mean words have. wrecked
many a home, divided many a church, and sent unnumbered
millions to despair and ruin. Yet we know many very Religious
people who seem never to make even the slightest effort to con-
trol their Tongue.

Chapter 3:13-18. Wisdom

This passage seems to be aimed at certain loquacious teachers,
who, bigoted over some pet doctrine, with little personal affec-
"Lion for Christ, and ambitious to be considered brilliant in argu-
ment, were producing only jealousy and faction. James calls such
Wisdom “devilish", and suggests that the best way to show Real
Wisdom is by a Good Life.

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Bible Project
Book of James (Jacob)

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James 1 New International Version (NIV)

1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ,

To the twelve tribes scattered among the nations:

Greetings.

Trials and Temptations
2 Consider it pure joy, my brothers and sisters,[a] whenever you face trials of many kinds, 3 because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. 4 Let perseverance finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. 5 If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you. 6 But when you ask, you must believe and not doubt, because the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. 7 That person should not expect to receive anything from the Lord. 8 Such a person is double-minded and unstable in all they do.

9 Believers in humble circumstances ought to take pride in their high position. 10 But the rich should take pride in their humiliation—since they will pass away like a wild flower. 11 For the sun rises with scorching heat and withers the plant; its blossom falls and its beauty is destroyed. In the same way, the rich will fade away even while they go about their business.

12 Blessed is the one who perseveres under trial because, having stood the test, that person will receive the crown of life that the Lord has promised to those who love him.

13 When tempted, no one should say, “God is tempting me.” For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone; 14 but each person is tempted when they are dragged away by their own evil desire and enticed. 15 Then, after desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, gives birth to death.

16 Don’t be deceived, my dear brothers and sisters. 17 Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows. 18 He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created.

Listening and Doing

19 My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, 20 because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. 21 Therefore, get rid of all moral filth and the evil that is so prevalent and humbly accept the word planted in you, which can save you.

22 Do not merely listen to the word, and so deceive yourselves. Do what it says. 23 Anyone who listens to the word but does not do what it says is like someone who looks at his face in a mirror 24 and, after looking at himself, goes away and immediately forgets what he looks like. 25 But whoever looks intently into the perfect law that gives freedom, and continues in it—not forgetting what they have heard, but doing it—they will be blessed in what they do.

26 Those who consider themselves religious and yet do not keep a tight rein on their tongues deceive themselves, and their religion is worthless. 27 Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world.

Footnotes:
James 1:2 The Greek word for brothers and sisters (adelphoi) refers here to believers, both men and women, as part of God’s family; also in verses 16 and 19; and in 2:1, 5, 14; 3:10, 12; 4:11; 5:7, 9, 10, 12, 19.


James 2 New International Version (NIV)

Favoritism Forbidden

2 My brothers and sisters, believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ must not show favoritism. 2 Suppose a man comes into your meeting wearing a gold ring and fine clothes, and a poor man in filthy old clothes also comes in. 3 If you show special attention to the man wearing fine clothes and say, “Here’s a good seat for you,” but say to the poor man, “You stand there” or “Sit on the floor by my feet,” 4 have you not discriminated among yourselves and become judges with evil thoughts?

5 Listen, my dear brothers and sisters: Has not God chosen those who are poor in the eyes of the world to be rich in faith and to inherit the kingdom he promised those who love him? 6 But you have dishonored the poor. Is it not the rich who are exploiting you? Are they not the ones who are dragging you into court? 7 Are they not the ones who are blaspheming the noble name of him to whom you belong?

8 If you really keep the royal law found in Scripture, “Love your neighbor as yourself,”[a] you are doing right. 9 But if you show favoritism, you sin and are convicted by the law as lawbreakers. 10 For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles at just one point is guilty of breaking all of it. 11 For he who said, “You shall not commit adultery,”[b] also said, “You shall not murder.”[c] If you do not commit adultery but do commit murder, you have become a lawbreaker.

12 Speak and act as those who are going to be judged by the law that gives freedom, 13 because judgment without mercy will be shown to anyone who has not been merciful. Mercy triumphs over judgment.

Faith and Deeds




14 What good is it, my brothers and sisters, if someone claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save them? 15 Suppose a brother or a sister is without clothes and daily food. 16 If one of you says to them, “Go in peace; keep warm and well fed,” but does nothing about their physical needs, what good is it? 17 In the same way, faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead.

18 But someone will say, “You have faith; I have deeds.”

Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by my deeds. 19 You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that—and shudder.

20 You foolish person, do you want evidence that faith without deeds is useless[d]? 21 Was not our father Abraham considered righteous for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? 22 You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did. 23 And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,”[e] and he was called God’s friend. 24 You see that a person is considered righteous by what they do and not by faith alone.

25 In the same way, was not even Rahab the prostitute considered righteous for what she did when she gave lodging to the spies and sent them off in a different direction? 26 As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without deeds is dead.

Footnotes:
James 2:8 Lev. 19:18
James 2:11 Exodus 20:14; Deut. 5:18
James 2:11 Exodus 20:13; Deut. 5:17
James 2:20 Some early manuscripts dead
James 2:23 Gen. 15:6

James 3 New International Version (NIV)

Taming the Tongue



3 Not many of you should become teachers, my fellow believers, because you know that we who teach will be judged more strictly. 2 We all stumble in many ways. Anyone who is never at fault in what they say is perfect, able to keep their whole body in check.

3 When we put bits into the mouths of horses to make them obey us, we can turn the whole animal. 4 Or take ships as an example. Although they are so large and are driven by strong winds, they are steered by a very small rudder wherever the pilot wants to go. 5 Likewise, the tongue is a small part of the body, but it makes great boasts. Consider what a great forest is set on fire by a small spark. 6 The tongue also is a fire, a world of evil among the parts of the body. It corrupts the whole body, sets the whole course of one’s life on fire, and is itself set on fire by hell.

7 All kinds of animals, birds, reptiles and sea creatures are being tamed and have been tamed by mankind, 8 but no human being can tame the tongue. It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison.

9 With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father, and with it we curse human beings, who have been made in God’s likeness. 10 Out of the same mouth come praise and cursing. My brothers and sisters, this should not be. 11 Can both fresh water and salt water flow from the same spring? 12 My brothers and sisters, can a fig tree bear olives, or a grapevine bear figs? Neither can a salt spring produce fresh water.

Two Kinds of Wisdom
13 Who is wise and understanding among you? Let them show it by their good life, by deeds done in the humility that comes from wisdom. 14 But if you harbor bitter envy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast about it or deny the truth. 15 Such “wisdom” does not come down from heaven but is earthly, unspiritual, demonic. 16 For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice.

17 But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere. 18 Peacemakers who sow in peace reap a harvest of righteousness.


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James the Brother of Jesus.  The James Ossuary.  Produced to the World.  2002.

Not Guilty of Forgery on the James Ossuary


ARTIFACTS ON TRIAL
Oded Golan is not guilty of forgery. So is the ‘James ossuary’ for real?
The failure of a high-profile prosecution for antiquities fraud perpetuates the mystery of a find hailed as physical proof that Jesus existed
By MATTI FRIEDMAN
14 March 2012, 6:20 pm


The 'James ossuary,' one of the pieces at the center of Golan's forgery trial, had been hailed by some scholars as the first physical proof for the existence of Jesus (photo credit: AP Photo/Biblical Archaeology Review)
The 'James ossuary,' one of the pieces at the center of Golan's forgery trial, had been hailed by some scholars as the first physical proof for the existence of Jesus (photo credit: AP Photo/Biblical Archaeology Review)
Oded Golan, the Tel Aviv collector accused of forging biblical artifacts, was at the center of a seven-year trial that ended in his acquittal Wednesday. But he was never its star — that role belonged to the artifacts themselves.

While the significance of the exoneration for Golan himself is obvious, what it means for the antiquities is less clear.

The most famous of the artifacts is a stone box known as the “James ossuary,” exhibited at the Royal Ontario Museum a decade ago and touted by some scholars as the first archaeological evidence for the existence of Jesus. It bears an Aramaic inscription reading, “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus.”

Get The Times of Israel's Daily Edition by email and never miss our top stories FREE SIGN UP Oded Golan was acquitted Wednesday of forging antiquities, but the judge did not rule whether the artifacts in question were genuine or fake (photo credit: AP/Sebastian Scheiner)
Oded Golan was acquitted Wednesday of forging antiquities, but the judge did not rule whether the artifacts in question were genuine or fake (photo credit: AP/Sebastian Scheiner)
The prosecution claimed Golan had taken a genuine but common ossuary inscribed with the words “James, son of Joseph,” and added the words “brother of Jesus,” turning it into a find of global importance and vast worth. Then, according to the charge, he manufactured a fake patina — the thin film of grime that typically accumulates over centuries — and applied it to the new inscription to make it seem ancient.

He was also accused of manufacturing the ancient Hebrew inscription on a rectangular piece of stone known as the “Jehoash tablet,” which recounted a Temple renovation by a king of Jerusalem in the 9th century B.C.E. If genuine, the tablet is one of the most spectacular items ever to have surfaced in the world of biblical archaeology.

Golan was also accused of forging a string of other artifacts, including clay seal imprints, a lamp, and a ceramic decanter. He denied all of the accusations and was acquitted of all charges of forgery and fraud. The judge convicted him only of lesser offenses: possessing objects suspected of being stolen and selling antiquities without a license.

The case offered a glimpse at the murky world of biblical antiquities, where objects often surface not in excavations but on the black market, their origins unclear and their authenticity difficult or impossible to confirm. Golan said he had obtained most of the objects in question, including the ossuary, from dealers, most of them Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and east Jerusalem.

The Jehoash tablet, with an inscription in ancient Hebrew, was one of the objects at the center of the trial (photo credit: Courtesy the Israel Antiquities Authority)
The Jehoash tablet, with an inscription in ancient Hebrew, was one of the objects at the center of the trial (photo credit: Courtesy the Israel Antiquities Authority)
The thirst for objects that offer a physical link to the world of the Bible, and the sums involved — the Jehoash tablet was purportedly offered to the Israel Museum for $4 million, though no sale ever took place — would make objects of this type well worth a forger’s time.

The Golan case has had the effect of making collectors and experts more suspicious of forgeries, and museums have reviewed their collections looking for fakes. Because of the trial, the Israel Antiquities Authority wrote in its response to the verdict, “there has been an almost complete cessation of the publication of finds that come from the antiquities market without first knowing their exact place of discovery, and the trade in written documents and seals derived from illicit antiquities excavations has been halted almost entirely.”

In his ruling Wednesday, the judge went out of his way to say that the fact Golan had been found not guilty did not mean the artifacts were real.

His decision to clear Golan of forging the inscription on the James ossuary, he wrote, “does not mean that the inscription on the ossuary is authentic or that it was written 2,000 years ago. This will continue to be studied by scientists and archaeologists, and time will tell.

“Moreover,” he wrote, “it was not proven in any way that the words ‘the brother of Jesus’ necessarily refer to the ‘Jesus’ who appears in Christian writings.”

This applies to all of the artifacts in question, he added several hundred pages later in the lengthy text of his decision: “All that has been established is that the tools and the science currently at the disposal of the experts who testified were not sufficient to prove the alleged forgeries beyond a reasonable doubt as is required by criminal law.”

In short, the case’s conclusion does not establish whether or not the James ossuary, the Jehoash tablet, or any of the artifacts in questions are historic discoveries or slick fakes. The only clear conclusion to be drawn from the trial, perhaps, is a frustrating one: Where ancient artifacts are concerned, that distinction is nearly impossible to make.

“The trial was a collision of two worlds —  criminal prosecution and scholarly archaeology,” said journalist Matthew Kalman, the editor of The Jerusalem Report and the only reporter to cover the entire trial.


“The two simply speak different languages,” he said. “The verdict will not make a difference to the archaeologists arguing about the whether the artifacts are authentic.”

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The Untold Story of the Brother of Jesus.  James - Jacob of Jerusalem.  Died. 62AD.

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New International Version (NIV)

Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Some content adapted from Halley, Henry H., Bible Handbook, Grayson Publishing, Minneapolis, MN.  © 1927 - 1959, 1964

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Hugh C. Wood, Atlanta, Georgia

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